Category Archives: Actividad física

Student Obesity Rate Slowing Thanks To Prevention Efforts In Schools

Student Obesity Rate

   Posted: 03/ 5/2012 4:16 pm

This article comes to us courtesy of California Watch

By Joanna Lin

Obesity is still on the rise among California students, but after years of prevention measures in schools, the rate is slowing, new research shows.

More than 35 percent of students were overweight or obese in 2008, up from one-third in 2003. That’s an average annual increase of 0.33 percent, compared with 0.8 to 1.7 percent each year in decades prior.

The findings, released last week, are based on the results of state-mandated physical fitness testing of fifth-, seventh- and ninth-grade students. Researchers at UC Davis, with funding from the California Department of Education, examined test results of 6.3 million students over six years.

The tests showed overall improvements in aerobic capacity, upper body strength and flexibility and declines in healthy body composition, abdominal strength and trunk extensor strength. The percentage of students achieving healthy fitness in all categories jumped from about 29 percent in 2003 to nearly 35 percent in 2008.

“This is a first step. It’s a big first step because for the first time, we’ve at least been able to block the progression or increase in obesity,” said Dr. William Bommer, a professor of cardiovascular medicine at UC Davis and senior author of the study. “Obesity, it’s probably one of the hardest things we have in adults and even in kids to try to reverse.”

Of the three grades tested in physical fitness, researchers found the youngest students to be of greatest concern. Heavier each year, incoming fifth-graders are driving the overall increase in student obesity, Bommer said. After entering fifth grade, obesity leveled off, suggesting that students might need new, earlier interventions.

Bommer was part of a state task force in 2004 that recommended physical activity and healthy food and drink standards in California schools. For every 10 school days, the state now requires at least 200 minutes of physical activity for students in first through sixth grades and 400 minutes for students in grades 7 through 12. And high-fat, sugary foods and beverages are banned from schools.

But because physical fitness is not tested before fifth grade, “we don’t know how well we did in those K-5 grades,” Bommer said. “To be honest, I can’t tell you whether the problem is before kindergarten, K-5 or both of those where we still have the increase in obesity.”

Bommer said physical fitness testing at earlier ages could help identify the onset of obesity. But statewide fitness testing is at risk.

Gov. Jerry Brown has proposed eliminating the state-mandated program – an annual appropriation of nearly $3.5 million. In its budget analysis, the Legislative Analyst’s Office said, “These tests do not supplement state physical education requirements in any substantive way nor are the test results used to improve physical education practices.”

Auditsstudies and surveys have found that many students do not receive the required amounts of physical activity. State Superintendent of Public Instruction Tom Torlakson and public health advocates say the tests are an important diagnostic component of physical education.

“The superintendent is very much (for) educating the whole student, and that includes the body as well as the mind,” said Linda Hooper, an education research and evaluation consultant for the Department of Education. Torlakson recently launched an initiative to promote physical activity and healthy eating in schools and communities.

Eliminating funding for physical fitness tests would hurt those efforts, Hooper said, adding that without the state mandate, a majority of districts would not perform the tests.

Physical fitness testing results are perhaps the department’s most-requested data, Hooper said. The data – among the most comprehensive of its kind in the country – are valuable tools for health and education officials, researchers and advocates.

The California Center for Public Health Advocacy last year used physical fitness testing data to identify significant disparities [PDF] in the rates of overweight and obese students throughout the state. In 31 of the state’s 58 counties, the prevalence of overweight and obese students has increased even as the statewide average has declined.

“It gives the schools tools to be able to assess where they might need to beef up their physical education or where students have specific needs. … It gives a window into policy interventions as well,” said S. Alecia Sanchez, policy director for the California Center for Public Health Advocacy.

Simply requiring physical activity in school is not enough, Bommer said.

“If we don’t test, we really can’t tell whether we’re having an effect or not,” he said. “If you can’t have this testing, we might just assume, gee, obesity has gone away, and it isn’t a problem. But this tells us there’s still an ongoing problem.”

Joanna Lin is an investigative reporter for California Watch, a project of the non-profit Center for Investigative reporting. Find more California Watch storieshere.

43 millones de niños tienen sobrepeso, alerta la OMS

Sábado 26 de febrero de 2011Ruth Rodríguez y Jorge Ramos | El Universalpolitica@eluniversal.com.mx 

La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) pidió a los países ser determinantes en la lucha contra las enfermedades crónicas y la obesidad, pues actualmente hay 43 millones de niños en edad preescolar con sobrepeso.

La organización advirtió que la presión para no tomar las decisiones adecuadas serán enormes en términos de sufrimiento humano, de mortalidad, y de no tener gente sana que sostenga la economía y desarrollo social que buscan los gobiernos.

En su mensaje, la directora de la OMS, Margaret Chan, afirmó que algunos dicen que las personas escogen la sal, consumir demasiado alcohol y comer comida chatarra, sentarse frente a la televisión y las pantallas de las computadoras. “No obstante, todos tenemos una gran responsabilidad en esos 43 millones de niños obesos cuyos padres no son malos, sino más bien, son malas políticas”, dijo durante la clausura de los trabajos de la Consulta Regional de Alto Nivel de las Américas contra las Enfermedades Crónicas no Transmisibles y la Obesidad, realizada en el DF.

Chan dijo que “más personas están viviendo en sociedades que permiten la venta de productos de tabaco y un mercado seductor de alimentos y bebidas que son baratas, convenientes, sabrosas y llenadoras, pero muy malas en salud”.

Ante el presidente Felipe Calderón y el secretario de Salud, José Ángel Córdova Villalobos, la directora de la OMS, aseguró que los países en desarrollo son mercados “objetivos” y “sencillos” para la industria, porque a muchos les falta incluso las más rudimentarias capacidades regulatorias para lidiar con un mercadeo irresponsable y para controlar los productos que son ofrecidos.

La industria —agregó— se ha mostrado como voluntaria para reformular los productos, bebidas, alimentos, botanas, para que se puedan reducir los niveles de sal, azúcar y grasas trans. Sin embargo, “también nos damos cuenta que las limitaciones de las autorregulaciones son muy grandes”.

Por ello, el gobierno tiene que decir qué es lo que tiene que imponer con las regulaciones. Tan sólo, comentó, de 40% a 50% de las muertes totales de las enfermedades crónicas la representan los problemas cardiovasculares, el cáncer y la diabetes.

También, les pidió establecer mayores controles hacia el tabaco, que incluya alza de impuestos, así como edificios libres de humo de tabaco, dentro del transporte, escuelas y hospitales. Admitió que el sector salud actuando solo no puede cambiar la balanza.

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Se estanca combate a obesidad infantil

Pese a los esfuerzos de las autoridades por abatir el problema, no hay grandes avances

Según la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición más reciente, el estado de Veracruz es el que presenta mayor incidencia de obesidad en población escolar masculina con una cantidad cercana a los 56 mil niños (96 mil de ambos sexos) que presentan el problema. Raúl Tinoco / EL UNIVERSAL

PADECIMIENTO. Veracruz es el estado con mayor incidencia de obesidad en población escolar masculina, mientras que Nuevo León es la entidad con más casos de niñas (Foto: RAÚL TIONOCO EL UNIVERSAL )

Lunes 05 de marzo de 2012Corresponsales | El Universal

Aun año y medio del Acuerdo Nacional para la Salud Alimentaria que buscaría abatir la obesidad en el país, principalmente en edad escolar, las autoridades educativas estatales han reportado pocos avances e incluso sólo 17 de las 32 entidades federativas cuentan con programas locales de censo de talla y peso de niños.El Distrito Federal, Estado de México y Yucatán son las entidades donde los directivos de salud y educación han promovido más los programas de medición de cintura y peso de los niños en las escuelas.En octubre de 2011 autoridades yucatecas anunciaron que los menores serían sometidos a un plan para detectar a los más “gorditos” y así proceder a ofrecerles planes nutricionales y de actividad física.También cuentan con programas de monitoreo de grasa corporal en niños los estados de CoahuilaColima,DurangoGuanajuatoHidalgoJaliscoMichoacán yNuevo León. Además de San Luis PotosíSinaloa,Sonora, Tamaulipas, Veracruz y Zacatecas; aunque estos últimos, sólo en algunas escuelas piloto o municipios específicos.

El pasado sábado 3 de marzo se llevó a cabo la VI Caminata Nacional por la Salud en 294 municipios del país como promoción de la activación física, ya que a pesar de la difusión sobre prevención, los casos en menores siguen presentándose.

De acuerdo con la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición más reciente, el estado de Veracruz es el que presenta mayor incidencia de obesidad en población escolar masculina, con una cantidad cercana a los 56 mil niños (96 mil de ambos sexos) que presentan el problema.

Nuevo León es la entidad con más casos de niñas que presentan sobrepeso y obesidad, ya que se tienen registrados aproximadamente 40 mil casos del padecimiento.

Baja California es el estado que presenta el mayor índice porcentual de obesidad infantil en varones —en edad escolar— con 19%, en tanto que el mayor índice en mujeres lo presenta Chihuahua, con 15.6%.

Sobre el tema, el titular de la Coordinación de Vigilancia Epidemiológica del IMSS en Jalisco,Guadalupe Castañeda López, dijo que en los últimos cinco años se ha registrado un incremento de 32% en casos de obesidad infantil. El especialista manifestó que la mayor incidencia se concentra en menores de cinco a nueve años de edad.

Dijo que la tasa de obesidad en menores de cero a 4 años de edad es de 15.2% por cada mil infantes; mientras que en niños de 5 a 9 años es de 24.4% por cada mil, “es decir, 60% mayor que en el primer rango”.

Comentó que los niños en edad escolar tienden a llevar una alimentación menos saludable debido a que consumen productos de bajo valor nutricional y sustituyen la actividad física por videojuegos, televisión, internet u otros pasatiempos que son considerados como pasivos.

De acuerdo con el bariatra Wilbert Solano, se debería plantear un control que no solamente se lleve a cabo en las escuelas, sino que además se extienda a los padres de familia para que sean educados de la misma forma, debido a que muchas veces el niño que es obeso vive influenciado por los hábitos alimenticios de padres que son obesos.

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Study of the Day: Like Obesity, Weight Loss Can Be Contagious

By Hans Villarica

Teammates in a dieting challenge significantly improved each other’s outcomes, suggesting that shedding pounds can have a ripple effect.

main Everett Collection shutterstock_93940780.jpg

PROBLEM: Obesity remains a common, deadly, and costly disease in the U.S. It affects one in three American adults and its associated health problems, including heart disease and diabetes, cost the nation hundreds of billions of dollars each year. Can team-based weight loss interventions help?

METHODOLOGY: Researchers from Brown University analyzed the results of the 2009 Shape UpRhode Island campaign, a 12-week online weight loss competition where participants joined a team and competed in three divisions: weight loss, physical activity, and pedometer steps. The contest included 3,330 overweight or obese people or 987 teams.

RESULTS: Competition outcomes were most determined by the teams the participants were in. Those who lost clinically significant amounts of weight or at least five percent of their initial body weight tended to be on the same teams. Members who reported more teammate influence also increased their odds of achieving this level of weight loss by 20 percent.

CONCLUSION: Social influences can fuel weight loss.

IMPLICATION: Being surrounded by the right people when dieting matters. Lead author Tricia Leahey explains in a statement that they may provide accountability, help set expectations of weight loss, and provide encouragement and support.

SOURCE: The full study, “Teammates and Social Influence Affect Weight Loss Outcomes in a Team-Based Weight Loss Competition,” is published in the journal Obesity.

Image: Everett Collection/Shutterstock.

This article available online at:

http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2012/03/study-of-the-day-like-obesity-weight-loss-can-be-contagious/253481/

La salud en la empresa Mexicana; una bomba que se puede desactivar.

Bertha Sola |
2012-02-28 | Hora de creación: 11:02:32| Ultima modificación: 11:02:32
 Las empresas muchas veces atienden lo que consideran asuntos de vital importancia, sin considerar que la falta de salud es uno de ellos.

Es indispensable monitorear la salud en las organizaciones ya que es muy probable que de cada 100 empleados de su empresa:

  • 50 sean obesos y 20 tengan sobrepeso
  • 33 tengan el colesterol alto
  • 20 sufran hipertensión
  • 12 sean diabéticos y 4 de ellos no lo sepan
  • 30 estén deprimidos
  • 25 sean fumadores de alto riesgo

Debido a lo anterior, los empleados están en riesgo y esto genera que la productividad de la empresa baje considerablemente.

Atendiendo a esta problemática, Sodexo Soluciones de motivación en Alianza con Empresa Saludable promueve una iniciativa para prevenir y monitorear la salud de las organizaciones en nuestro país.

Este plan de salud permite identificar a muy bajo costo la condición de cada uno de sus empleados. Asimismo, emprende programas personalizados obteniendo  beneficios contundentes tanto para los trabajadores  como  para la organización:

  • Mejora en el estado físico y mental  elevando la productividad y evitando el ausentismo
  • Maximiza la inversión en salud reduciendo los siniestros con impacto en la póliza de gastos médicos y del IMSS
  • Fortalece la reputación corporativa de su organización siendo reconocida  como una empresa saludable

·         Corresponsabiliza al empleado del cuidado de su salud cambiando el enfoque hacia la prevención

Sodexo complementa esta iniciativa de salud con su programa ¨Vivir bien¨ junto con  la utilización de su producto Resto pass en apoyo a una alimentación balanceada y saludable.

¨Nuestro  compromiso es seguir desarrollando estos  programas de salud empresariales e impulsar el bienestar y calidad de vida del empleado¨. Concluyó Celso Fernandes, Director General de Sodexo México.

Fuente: Empresa Saludable

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Implementan en Guerrero programas para abatir obesidad

notimex |
2012-02-29 | Hora de creación: 14:13:10| Ultima modificación: 14:13:10
 El gobierno de Guerrero implementa programas gratuitos para combatir la obesidad, ya que el 63 por ciento de la población presenta problemas de peso, informó el secretario de Salud en la entidad, Lázaro Mazón Alonso.

En entrevista, detalló que esta iniciativa fue promovida por el gobernador Ángel Aguirre Rivero para disminuir la obesidad en municipios como Acapulco, Chilpancingo e Iguala, en donde se implementan clases de zumba gratis para mujeres y hombres de todas las edades.

Destacó que uno de los principales problemas que genera la obesidad es la diabetes, hipertensión. Las más propensas son las mujeres, y hoy en día los menores de edad, insistió en la promoción de la ingesta de verduras, agua natural y hacer ejercicio.

Recordó que en más de 20 colonias de Acapulco se han implementado las clases de zumba, mismos que cuentan con horario establecido e instructor para guiar a los asistentes a la clase.

Lamentó que pese a los programas gratuitos que implementa el gobierno del estado hay ciudadanos que se rehúsan a dejar de consumir refrescos y comidas de bajo contenido nutrimental.

A nivel estatal, comentó que el problema es severo, ya que desde hace cinco años la mitad de los hospitales esperan un trasplante de riñón, debido a que de cada 10 diabéticos, nueve eran obesos; de cada 10 hipertensos, cinco eran obesos.

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HOW EXERCISE FUELS THE BRAIN

FEBRUARY 22, 2012, 12:01 AM

By GRETCHEN REYNOLDS
Shannon Stapleton/ReutersDoes exercise keep your brain running?

Moving the body demands a lot from the brain. Exercise activates countless neurons, which generate, receive and interpret repeated, rapid-fire messages from the nervous system, coordinating muscle contractions, vision, balance, organ function and all of the complex interactions of bodily systems that allow you to take one step, then another.

This increase in brain activity naturally increases the brain’s need for nutrients, but until recently, scientists hadn’t fully understood how neurons fuel themselves during exercise. Now a series of animal studies from Japan suggest that the exercising brain has unique methods of keeping itself fueled. What’s more, the finely honed energy balance that occurs in the brain appears to have implications not only for how well the brain functions during exercise, but also for how well our thinking and memory work the rest of the time.

For many years, scientists had believed that the brain, which is a very hungry organ, subsisted only on glucose, or blood sugar, which it absorbed from the passing bloodstream. But about 10 years ago, some neuroscientists found that specialized cells in the brain, known as astrocytes, that act as support cells for neurons actually contained small stores of glycogen, or stored carbohydrates. And glycogen, as it turns out, is critical for the health of cells throughout the brain.

In petri dishes, when neurons, which do not have energy stores of their own, are starved of blood sugar, their neighboring astrocytes undergo a complex physiological process that results in those cells’ stores of glycogen being broken down into a form easily burned by neurons. This substance is released into the space between the cells and the neurons swallow it, maintaining their energy levels.

But while scientists knew that the brain had and could access these energy stores, they had been unable to study when the brain’s stored energy was being used in actual live conditions, outside of petri dishes, because brain glycogen is metabolized or burned away very rapidly after death; it’s gone before it can be measured.

That’s where the Japanese researchers came in. They had developed a new method of using high-powered microwave irradiation to instantly freeze glycogen levels at death, so that the scientists could accurately assess just how much brain glycogen remained in the astrocytes or had recently been used.

In the first of their new experiments, published last year in The Journal of Physiology, scientists at the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Neuroscience at the University of Tsukuba gathered two groups of adult male rats and had one group start a treadmill running program, while the other group sat for the same period of time each day on unmoving treadmills. The researchers’ aim was to determine how much the level of brain glycogen changed during and after exercise.

Using their glycogen detection method, they discovered that prolonged exercise significantly lowered the brain’s stores of energy, and that the losses were especially noticeable in certain areas of the brain, like the frontal cortex and the hippocampus, that are involved in thinking and memory, as well as in the mechanics of moving.

The findings of their subsequent follow-up experiment, however, were even more intriguing and consequential. In that study, which appears in this month’s issue of The Journal of Physiology, the researchers studied animals after a single bout of exercise and also after four weeks of regular, moderate-intensity running.

After the single session on the treadmill, the animals were allowed to rest and feed, and then their brain glycogen levels were studied. The food, it appeared, had gone directly to their heads; their brain levels of glycogen not only had been restored to what they had been before the workout, but had soared past that point, increasing by as much as a 60 percent in the frontal cortex and hippocampus and slightly less in other parts of the brain. The astrocytes had “overcompensated,” resulting in a kind of brain carbo-loading.

The levels, however, had dropped back to normal within about 24 hours.

That was not the case, though, if the animals continued to exercise. In those rats that ran for four weeks, the “supercompensation” became the new normal, with their baseline levels of glycogen showing substantial increases compared with the sedentary animals. The increases were especially notable in, again, those portions of the brain critical to learning and memory formation — the cortex and the hippocampus.

Which is why the findings are potentially so meaningful – and not just for rats.

While a brain with more fuel reserves is potentially a brain that can sustain and direct movement longer, it also “may be a key mechanism underlying exercise-enhanced cognitive function,” says Hideaki Soya, a professor of exercise biochemistry at the University of Tsukuba and senior author of the studies, since supercompensation occurs most strikingly in the parts of the brain that allow us better to think and to remember. As a result, Dr. Soya says, “it is tempting to suggest that increased storage and utility of brain glycogen in the cortex and hippocampus might be involved in the development” of a better, sharper brain.

Given the limits of current technologies, brain glycogen metabolism cannot be studied in people. But even so, the studies’ findings make D.I.Y. brain-fuel supercompensation efforts seem like an attractive possibility. And, according to unpublished data from Dr. Soya’s lab, the process may even be easy.

He and his colleagues have found that “glycogen supercompensation in some brain loci” is “enhanced in rats receiving carbohydrates immediately after exhaustive exercise.” So for people, that might mean that after a run or other exercise that is prolonged or strenuous enough to leave you tired, a bottle of chocolate milk or a banana might be just the thing your brain is needing.

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